Master File contains records that describe the details of an event, thing, person etc. A master file contains relatively permanent records which change only through the updating process.
Transaction File contains records that describe the details of processing such as information used for a bill or paycheck or to add, change or delete information. The transaction file contains temporary business records used for a particular job. It is retained long enough to provide a backup to processing (to permit re-running if necessary and to provide a trail).
Summary File contains condensed versions (usually totals etc.) of transaction or master file data. They are usually used in creating management summary reports and in passing information from one application to another.
Suspense File contains records in error or records that need to be held for further processing. They hold data, data that is bad or data that is not yet ready to be processed.
Exploded File contains expanded versions of the original records. Usually they are expanded during processing and pick up information from other files.
Selected File contains selected information (either whole records or partial records) for further processing
Intermediate/work File is a file which contains information that is output from one program and will be input to another. These files are involved in processing but will not be saved.
Backup File contains a copy of another file made for security reasons or contains an older version of the current file for security reasons.
Change File contains adjustments made to files. They have the contents of the record before a change and the contents of the record after a change.
Table File contains table information that can be randomly retrieved. Pricing information might be kept on a table file.
Satellite File contains additional information relevant to records on the master file. They are frequently used to keep detailed information when some master records have only one record of additional information and other master records will need to have several records of additional information.
Report File contains information for reports.
Archival or Historic File contains historic information.